Influence on the bones
In latent acidosis, basic minerals such as calcium and magnesium are released from the bones to neutralise excess acid in the body. In addition, there is evidence of direct intervention in the activity of bone cells: acid inhibits the activity of osteoblasts, which formate bone, and stimulates the activity of osteoclasts, which deplete bone.
This is because, when there is a slight shift in the pH towards acid, RANKL (receptor-activated NFkB ligand) and TNFa are produced in the osteoblasts and in turn bind to osteoclasts, in this way increasing their activity. This shifts the balance between bone formation and bone resorption towards bone resorption. In the long term, this leads to loss of bone mass with a marked increase in the risk of osteoporosis.
As numerous epidemiological and experimental studies show, consumption of a high-alkaline diet containing a large proportion of fruit and vegetables can achieve positive effects on bone metabolism, as can targeted supplementation with alkaline minerals.
Daily citrate ingestion reduces the excretion of typical biomarkers of osteoporosis (hydroxyproline, cross-links) and in this way reduces bone resorption in postmenopausal women.
Supplementation with alkaline citrate, when consumed together with vitamin D and calcium, has a positive effect on bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. The effect of alkaline potassium citrate (30 mmol/day) on this was compared with the effect of neutral potassium chloride. Whereas bone density continued to decrease during the study period when potassium chloride was consumed, it increased significantly again when potassium citrate was ingested. The effect was therefore not dependent on potassium intake but was clearly based on the alkaline citrate compound. These results have also been confirmed in healthy male and female study subjects, who took either potassium citrate (60 mmol/day) or a placebo in addition to calcium/vitamin D replacement for a period of 2 years. This showed that citrate supplementation leads to a significant increase in bone density (+ 1.7%) even in healthy subjects.This is confirmed by a meta-analysis, which concluded from a total of 14 studies that administration of alkaline-forming substances leads to improved calcium balance and decreased bone resorption.